|The early research work of the Central American region and the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP) in nutrition was focused initially (1950 and 1960) on the clinical manifestation and the treatment of the various forms of malnutrition.
The important contributions of Central American institutions, national and INCAP to the knowledge of the adverse effects of the deficiencies of energy, protein, iodine, iron, vitamin A, among others, and in the formulation and testing of therapeutic protocols are well known in the literature on clinical and applied nutrition.
All the knowledge developed in the laboratories, pediatric metabolic units, pilot plants in food processing and animal facilities was progressively transferred to institutions and health programs and communities in Central America. Furthermore, the application of methods and techniques as well as food and nutrition research in the field, generated new knowledge about the conceptual framework of malnutrition, the underlying determinants, underlying nutritional status and intermediaries and the different ways to address the problem, from therapeutic interventions to preventive measures,.
Relations between Environmental Insecurity and Human Insecurity
The relationships between environmental insecurity and human insecurity are many and complex. Thus, it is well known that human security is highly dependent on access to natural resources and vulnerabilities in the fluctuations and climate change, and that the environment has a direct impact on survival, productivity and human welfare. On the other hand, it has been documented how human activities are responsible for direct and indirect changes in the environment.
Manifestations of Food Insecurity-Nutrition
Numerous studies confirm the relationship of protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency, expression of Nutrition and Food Insecurity with other adverse health events, including those related to infectious diseases and chronic non-communicable diseases, mortality, physical growth and abnormal changes of weight, mental development, school performance, reproductive health and adult productivity. In all of these have been confirmed cause-effect relationships. In addition, there is extensive documentation that demonstrates the adverse effects of these manifestations of malnutrition on human development, establishing a real vicious circle of malnutrition and human underdevelopment.